In 2007 the National Institute of Justice funded the Campus Sexual Assault (CSA) survey, a web-based survey of 6,800 undergraduates at two large universities using multiple explicitly worded questions about sexual victimization. According to the results, 19% of women and 6.1% of men had been victims of at least one completed or attempted sexual assault since entering college. The study's authors also found that the majority of women were assaulted while incapacitated, that perpetrators were usually friends or acquaintances rather than strangers and that Freshmen and Sophomores were at a higher risk for sexual assault than Juniors and Seniors.
However, Christopher Krebs, the lead author of the CSA, cautions that the results from these two schools in no way nationally representative, noting, in a conversation with one reporter: "We don’t think one in five is a nationally representative statistic.” and “In no way does that make our results nationally representative.". Likewise, commenting on the Whitehouse's use of the CSA's 1 in 5 statistic, Mary Koss stated, "is not the soundest data (the White House) could use."
In a follow-up study in 2008, the authors of the 2007 Campus Sexual Assault Survey examined sexual violence experiences at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). 3,951 undergraduate women from four HBCUs were given the same questionnaire used in the 2007 CSA. The study found that 14.2% of women attending these schools had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault, and 8.3% had been victims of rape. The authors noted that incapacitated sexual assault was rarer among HBCU compared to non-HBCU students, and suggested that the differences in prevalence rates seemed "to be driven entirely by a difference in the rate of incapacitated sexual assault, which is likely explained by the fact that HBCU women drink alcohol much less frequently than non-HBCU women".
An internal survey at the University of Michigan of students’ experience with sexual misconduct found that more than 20% of undergraduate women had been touched, kissed or penetrated without their consent, prompting the university to use new tactics to address the problem.
In October, MIT published survey results that showed 17% of female undergraduates experienced unwanted sexual behaviors while at MIT, involving use of force, physical threat or incapacitation. The University of New Hampshire, a unique school in that it has been doing climate surveys for years, found in 2012 that 16% of its undergraduate women had experienced unwanted sexual contact or intercourse through force, threat or harm, or intoxication.
Mace spray and Pepper spray are the best self defense products available in the market today. Both sprays are very effective in serious situations. But there are some differences between both products. Some of the differences are:
1.Pepper spray contains a powder like ingredient which is a composition of capsicum oleoresin and OC gases while mace spray components is a composition of aerosol and CN gas.
2.The use of pepper spray does not require any training while the use of Mace spray requires training.
If the body of the attacker comes in exposure with these sprays it gets effected. Generally the effects of Pepper spray are more strong than Mace spray.
Physical effects of Mace: It generally effects six parts of the body
Nervous system: It temporarily effects our nervous system. The symptom includes headache, confusion and discomfort.
Eyes: The symptoms includes tears, burn sensation.
Chest: The symptoms include sneezing and coughing.
Nose: The symptoms includes discharge and irritation.
Mouth: The symptoms includes increase in saliva secretion.
Skin: The symptoms includes burning sensation and itching.
Effects of Pepper spray: The effect of Pepper spray generally occurs on four body organs. These are:
1.Respiratory system: The symptoms include swelling of throat, difficulty in speech, improper functioning of larynx.
2. Eyes: The symptoms includes complete closure of eyes because of the shrinkage of eye capillaries. The effect is so intense that it penetrates the contact lenses and eye glasses.
3.Skin: The symptom includes irritation on skin.
4.Muscles: The symptom includes loss of balance because of lack of muscles coordination.
First aid for Mace and Pepper spray: If you have accidentally sprayed the spray on your own body then follow the following first aid steps:
Do not get scared.
Move away to a breezy place. Fan can acts as a breeze source.
Wish the affected area with cold water.
After that use some antiseptic creams. Do not use oil or grease because they reacts very soon with tear gas and the resulting product will increase the burn feeling.
If your eyes have been exposed to spray then wash them frequently with cold water. Do not rub the eyes.
Remove the contact lenses if you are wearing after proper cleaning of hands.
The person who are giving first aid to the affected person must wear gloves to avoid any possibility of infection.
If the spray have fallen down on your clothes then put off them
If you are still feeling pain and irritation then consult a doctor.
The nice thing about Bear Mace, or Bear Pepper Spray is that it works on almost all animals.
Check out this video on how Donny Stone used Bear Pepper Spray to ward off 2 Mountain Lions!
With Zipidyzap Inc. we have one the best Bear Mace/ Pepper Sprays on the market.
People should be able to feel safe being outside in the early mornings, weather it is for work or for a morning jog.
One way that Zipidyzap Inc. can help is by offering self defense products.
Please watch this video, and see the trauma that this woman went through. All that could have be prevented if she would have had the Runt or the Trigger by Zipidyzap Inc.
Zipidyzap Inc. has something just like this, but it is 100 times better.
To prevent accidental discharge, two levels of safety have been built in. The safety switch must be in the on position (this will cause an LED warning light to come on) and the trigger button pressed before the unit will operate.
It operates on three (3) CR2 batteries which are included FREE ($12.00 value). FREE holster also included. Only 3.8 inches tall. Available in Black or Pink.
- You need to touch an attacker with a stun gun for it to be effective. The best places are neck, shoulder, abdomen and groin.
- A half second application can cause some pain. A one or two second dose will cause muscle spasms and confusion.
- A 3 to 5 second application will cause the loss of balance and muscle control, confusion and disorientation.
- Stun guns will go through a 1/2 inch of clothing.
- There is no shock back to you even if the attacker is touching you.